Sunday, May 24, 2020
In 1798 the French Revolutionary War in Europe reached a temporary pause, with the forces of revolutionary France and their enemies at peace. Only Britain remained at war. The French were still looking to secure their position, wished to knock out Britain out. However, despite Napoleon Bonaparte, the hero of Italy, being assigned a command to prepare for an invasion of Britain, it was clear to all that such an adventure would never succeed: BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s Royal Navy was too strong to allow for a workable beachhead. NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s Dream Napoleon had long harbored dreams of fighting in the Middle East and Asia, and he formulated a plan to strike back by attacking Egypt. A conquest here would secure the French hold on the Eastern Mediterranean, and to NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s mind open up a route to attack Britain in India. The Directory, the five-man body which ruled France, where equally keen to see Napoleon try his luck in Egypt because it would keep him away from usurping them, and give his troops something to do outside France. There was also the small chance heÃ¢â¬â¢d repeat the miracles of Italy. Consequently, Napoleon, a fleet and an army sailed from Toulon in May; he had over 250 transports and 13 Ã¢â¬Ëships of the lineÃ¢â¬â¢. After capturing Malta while on the way, 40,000 French landed in Egypt on July 1st. They captured Alexandria and marched on Cairo. Egypt was a notionally part of the Ottoman Empire, but it was under the practical control of the Mameluke military. NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s force had more than just troops. He had brought with him an army of civilian scientists who were to create the Institute of Egypt in Cairo, to both, learn from the east, and begin to Ã¢â¬ËcivilizeÃ¢â¬â¢ it. For some historians, the science of Egyptology began seriously with the invasion. Napoleon claimed he was there to defend Islam and Egyptian interests, but he wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t believed and rebellions began.Ã¢â¬â¹ Battles in the East Egypt might not be controlled by the British, but the Mameluke rulers were no happier to see Napoleon. An Egyptian army marched to meet the French, clashing at the Battle of the Pyramids on July 21st. A struggle of military eras, it was a clear victory for Napoleon, and Cairo was occupied. A new government was installed by Napoleon, ending Ã¢â¬ËfeudalismÃ¢â¬â¢, serfdom, and importing French structures. However, Napoleon could not command at sea, and on August 1st the Battle of the Nile was fought. British naval commander Nelson had been sent to stop Napoleon landing and had missed him while resupplying, but finally found the French fleet and took the chance to attack while it was docked in Aboukir Bay to take on supplies, gaining further surprise by attacking in the evening, on into night, and early in the morning: only two ships of the line escaped (they were later sunk), and NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s supply line had ceased to exist. At the Nile Nelson destroyed eleven ships of the line, which amounted to a sixth of those in the French navy, including some very new and large craft. It would take years to replace them and this was the pivotal battle of the campaign. NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s position suddenly weakened, the rebels he had encouraged turned against him. Acerra and Meyer have argued this was the defining battle of the Napoleonic Wars, which hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t yet begun. Napoleon couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t even take his army back to France and, with enemy forces forming up, Napoleon marched into Syria with a small army. The aim was to prise the Ottoman Empire apart from their alliance with Britain. After taking Jaffa Ã¢â¬â where three thousand prisoners were executed - he besieged Acre, but this held out, despite the defeat of a relief army sent by the Ottomans. The plague ravaged the French and Napoleon was forced back to Egypt. He nearly suffered a setback when Ottoman forces using British and Russian ships landed 20,000 people at Aboukir, but he moved quickly to attack before the cavalry, artillery, and elites had been landed and routed them. Napoleon Leaves Napoleon now took a decision which has damned him in the eyes of many critics: realising the political situation in France was ripe for change, both for him and against him, and believing only he could save the situation, save his position, and take command of the whole country, Napoleon left his army and returned to France in a ship which had to evade the British. He was soon to seize power in a coup dÃ¢â¬â¢etat. Post-Napoleon: French Defeat General Kleber was left to manage the French army, and he signed the Convention of El Arish with the Ottomans. This should have allowed him to pull the French army back to France, but the British refused, so Kleber attacked and retook Cairo. He was assassinated a few weeks later. The British now decided to send troops, and a force under Abercromby landed at Aboukir. The British and French fought soon after at Alexandria, and while Abercromby was killed the French were beaten, forced away from Cairo, and into surrender. Another invading British force was being organized in India to attack through the Red Sea. The British now allowed the French force to return to France and prisoners held by Britain were returned after a deal in 1802. NapoleonÃ¢â¬â¢s oriental dreams were over.
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
Sample details Pages: 23 Words: 6846 Downloads: 9 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Management Essay Type Research paper Did you like this example? Abstract In todays rapidly changing commerce environment, companies be it start up or well established companies must make good business decisions faster and more efficient than ever. Good business decisions require accurate, timely as well as meaningful data as well as techniques or models to support it. To make those decisions confidently, it is essential for companys management team to ensure that there are appropriate techniques that can support the decision making process such as operational research or management science techniques. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Msc Management Science And Operational Research Business Essay" essay for you Create order This will enable actions to be taken based on the conclusions drawn. Although there are several operational research techniques that can support decision making in a start-up company, the management of start-up companies are best equipped to lead the effort of applying this techniques by investing and supporting their use. To successfully apply operational research techniques in a start-up company, several key elements and challenges facing the companies must be brought together and analyzed. This paper will review some of the decision making techniques and challenges faced by Company A and John Biola London as ÃÆ'Ã Ã ° case study. KEY WORDS: Start-up Companies Established Companies, Operational Research Techniques, Decision Making, Company A, John Biola. Acknowledgment I am grateful for all the support I have received from my supervisor Kuangyi Liu whilst researching and writing this dissertation. I would like to thank the Management of Company A and John Biola for their patience and support in getting relevant information required for this study. Finally I would like to show my appreciation my appreciation to dear friend Titilayo Adigun for her exceptional support during the course of the programme dissertation. Chapter One 1 Introduction 1.1 Background of the Research Companies generally undergo different phases in their life cylcle before becoming well established firms just as normal humans will go through child birth to maturity. They do not just spring into billion dollar compaines (Carte et al, 1993). In the process of becoming well established firms, a start up company will generally face challenges which may result in early death of the company. Companies are born and must survie all the trials and tribulations of infancy and adolesence prior to attaining a healthy maturity (Carte et al, 1993). The ability to surviv these challenges will depend on how well a company can manage and resolve the challenges. According to Lehmann (1997) survivÃÆ'Ã Ã °l chÃÆ'Ã Ã °ncÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µs ÃÆ'Ã Ã °nd profitÃÆ'Ã Ã °bility hÃÆ'Ã Ã °vÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ comÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ to dÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µpÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µnd incrÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã Ã °singly on thÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ cÃÆ'Ã Ã °pÃÆ'Ã Ã °bility to innovÃÆ'Ã Ã ° tÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ fÃÆ'Ã Ã °st ÃÆ'Ã Ã °nd succÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µssfully.(Dissertation New V1).Many companies do not have the ability to predict the future due to economic and environmental uncertainity and this tends to have higher impact on the ability of new companies to survie. According to Cooper (1993), all firms are impacted by the environment, but new ventures have a concentration of risk upon a few products or services, narrow markets, and a few key resources. This calls for a number of decisons to be made by the management of the start up companies. ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ lthÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾ugh dÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µciÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢iÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾n mÃÆ'Ã Ã °king in ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢tÃÆ'Ã Ã °bliÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢hÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µd cÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾mpÃÆ'Ã Ã °niÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µm ÃÆ'Ã Ã ° lÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾t ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã Ã °ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢iÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µr thÃÆ'Ã Ã °n fÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾r ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢tÃÆ'Ã Ã °rt up cÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾mpÃÆ'Ã Ã °niÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢, thiÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ cÃÆ'Ã Ã °n bÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ ÃÆ'Ã Ã °ttributÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µd tÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾ thÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ cÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾mpÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µtitivÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ ÃÆ'Ã Ã °dvÃÆ'Ã Ã °ntÃÆ'Ã Ã °gÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ which thÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ cÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾mpÃÆ'Ã Ã °niÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ hÃÆ'Ã Ã °vÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾vÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µr ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢tÃÆ'Ã Ã °rt up cÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾mpÃÆ'Ã Ã °niÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢. ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ccÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾rding tÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾ HÃÆ'Ã Ã °rihÃÆ'Ã Ã °rÃÆ'Ã Ã °n ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µt ÃÆ'Ã Ã °l (1999), ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢tÃÆ'Ã Ã °rtÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ up cÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾mpÃÆ'Ã Ã °niÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ ÃÆ'Ã Ã °rÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ fÃÆ'Ã Ã °cÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µd with chÃÆ'Ã Ã °llÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µngÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢uch ÃÆ'Ã Ã °ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ ÃÆ'Ã Ã °ccÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ tÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾ widÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ rÃÆ'Ã Ã °ngÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾f rÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾urcÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ which ÃÆ'Ã Ã °ffÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µctÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ thÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µm whÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µthÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µr in ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µntÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µring ÃÆ'Ã Ã °n induÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢try ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾r ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢urviving in ÃÆ'Ã Ã °n induÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢try. BruÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢h ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µt Ã Æ'Ã Ã °l (1999) furthÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µr ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µxÃÆ'Ã Ã °minÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µd hÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾w ÃÆ'Ã Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢tÃÆ'Ã Ã °bliÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢hÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µd cÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾mpÃÆ'Ã Ã °niÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ dÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µvÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µlÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾p thÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µir rÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾urcÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ intÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µrnÃÆ'Ã Ã °lly whÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µrÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã Ã °ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢tÃÆ'Ã Ã °rtÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ up cÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾mpÃÆ'Ã Ã °niÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ hÃÆ'Ã Ã °vÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ tÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾ ÃÆ'Ã Ã °cquirÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ mÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢t ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾f itÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ rÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾urc ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ which pÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ ÃÆ'Ã Ã ° grÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã Ã °t chÃÆ'Ã Ã °llÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µngÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾n thÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µm. BÃÆ'Ã Ã °ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µd ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾n thÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ, it iÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ impÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾rtÃÆ'Ã Ã °nt tÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾ ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µxÃÆ'Ã Ã °minÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ thÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ nÃÆ'Ã Ã °turÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾f dÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µciÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢iÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾n mÃÆ'Ã Ã °king in ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾rgÃÆ'Ã Ã °niÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ÃÆ'Ã Ã °tiÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾nÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ bÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ it ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢tÃÆ'Ã Ã °rt upÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾r ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢tÃÆ'Ã Ã °bliÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢hÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µd firmÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢. Nutt (1998) rÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µpÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾rtÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µd thÃÆ'Ã Ã °t ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢tudiÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾f ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢trÃÆ'Ã Ã °tÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µgic dÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µciÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢iÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾n mÃÆ'Ã Ã °king ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢uggÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢t thÃÆ'Ã Ã °t dÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µciÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢iÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾nÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ ÃÆ'Ã Ã °rÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ frÃÆ'Ã Ã °mÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µd by ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢tÃÆ'Ã Ã °kÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µhÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾ldÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µrÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ whÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾ cÃÆ'Ã Ã °ll ÃÆ'Ã Ã °ttÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µntiÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾n tÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾ ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µmingly impÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾rtÃÆ'Ã Ã °nt dÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µvÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µlÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾pmÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µntÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ by mÃÆ'Ã Ã °king ÃÆ'Ã Ã ° clÃÆ'Ã Ã °im. ThiÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢urÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µly iÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ thÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ cÃÆ'Ã Ã °ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ with ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢tÃÆ'Ã Ã °bliÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢hÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µd cÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾mpÃÆ'Ã Ã °niÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ but with rÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢pÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µct ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢tÃÆ'Ã Ã °rt up cÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾mpÃÆ'Ã Ã °niÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢, thÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µir ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢tÃÆ'Ã Ã °kÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µhÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾ldÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µrÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ viÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µwÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ will ÃÆ'Ã Ã °lÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾ bÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ tÃÆ'Ã Ã °kÃÆ'Ã Ãâ Ã µn intÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾ cÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾nÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢idÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µrÃÆ'Ã Ã °tiÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾n whÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µn ÃÆ'Ã Ã °rriving ÃÆ'Ã Ã °t dÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µciÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢iÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾nÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢. In thiÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ inÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢tÃÆ'Ã Ã °ncÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ thÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ viÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µwÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾f thÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢tÃÆ'Ã Ã °kÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µhÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾ldÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µr ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ in ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢tÃÆ'Ã Ã °rt up cÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾mpÃÆ'Ã Ã °niÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ will mÃÆ'Ã Ã °inly bÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ fÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µdbÃÆ'Ã Ã °ckÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾n ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ÃÆ'Ã Ã °lÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ grÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾wth, cÃÆ'Ã Ã °ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã ¢â ¬Ã ¢h flÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾w mÃÆ'Ã Ã °nÃÆ'Ã Ã °gÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µmÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µnt ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µtc. FÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾llÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾wing up frÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾m thÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ, it iÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ highly impÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µrÃÆ'Ã Ã °tivÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ fÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾r ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢tÃÆ'Ã Ã °rt up cÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾mpÃÆ'Ã Ã °niÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ tÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾ bÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ cÃÆ'Ã Ã °utiÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾n in mÃÆ'Ã Ã °king dÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µciÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢iÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾nÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ which iÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ thÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ viÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µw ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾f ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ rchibÃÆ'Ã Ã °ld ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µt ÃÆ'Ã Ã °l (2002) in thÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µir ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µxpÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µrimÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µnt ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾f uÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ing MÃÆ'Ã Ã °rkÃÆ' Ã ÃâÃ ¾v mÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾dÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µl in invÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µntÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾ry dÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µciÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢iÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾n mÃÆ'Ã Ã °king. ThÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µy ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢uggÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢tÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µd thÃÆ'Ã Ã °t ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢tÃÆ'Ã Ã °rt up cÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾mpÃÆ'Ã Ã °niÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢hÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾uld bÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ mÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾rÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ cÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾nÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µrvÃÆ'Ã Ã °tivÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ in itÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ invÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µntÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾ry purchÃÆ'Ã Ã °ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ing ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢trÃÆ'Ã Ã °tÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µgy thÃÆ'Ã Ã °n thÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ wÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µll ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢tÃÆ'Ã Ã °bliÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢hÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µd cÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾mpÃÆ'Ã Ã °niÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢, nÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾nÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ thÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ lÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢, it ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢hÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾uldnt bÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ tÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾ cÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾nÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µrvÃÆ'Ã Ã °tivÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ. 1.2 Objectives Questions of the Research RÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã Ã °rch ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾n thÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ ÃÆ'Ã Ã °ctivitiÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾f ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢tÃÆ'Ã Ã °rt up firmÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢uggÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢tÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ thÃÆ'Ã Ã °t thiÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ cÃÆ'Ã Ã °tÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µgÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾ry ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾f cÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾mpÃÆ'Ã Ã °niÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ fÃÆ'Ã Ã °cÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ ÃÆ'Ã Ã ° numbÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µr ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾f chÃÆ'Ã Ã °llÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µngÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ which mÃÆ'Ã Ã °y hindÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µr thÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µir ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢uccÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ ÃÆ'Ã Ã °nd grÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾wth prÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢pÃÆ'Ã Ãâ Ã µctÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢. By nÃÆ'Ã Ã °turÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ, ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢tÃÆ'Ã Ã °rt up firmÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ cÃÆ'Ã Ã °n bÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ dÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢cribÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µd ÃÆ'Ã Ã °ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ yÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾ung cÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾mpÃÆ'Ã Ã °niÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ with rÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾urcÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ cÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾nÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢trÃÆ'Ã Ã °intÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢, littlÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾r nÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾ ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾pÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µrÃÆ'Ã Ã °ting ÃÆ'Ã Ã °nd pÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µrfÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾rmÃÆ'Ã Ã °ncÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ hiÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢tÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾ry. ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ ÃÆ'Ã Ã ° cÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾nÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µquÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µncÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾f t hÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ iÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢uÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢, ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢tÃÆ'Ã Ã °rt up cÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾mpÃÆ'Ã Ã °niÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ fÃÆ'Ã Ã °cÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µnÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾rmÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾uÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ chÃÆ'Ã Ã °llÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µngÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ in mÃÆ'Ã Ã °king dÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µciÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢iÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾nÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ which cÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾uld bÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ finÃÆ'Ã Ã °nciÃÆ'Ã Ã °l, ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾pÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µrÃÆ'Ã Ã °tiÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾nÃÆ'Ã Ã °l, riÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢k ÃÆ'Ã Ã °nd buÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢inÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢trÃÆ'Ã Ã °tÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µgy. ThÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ iÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢uÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ ÃÆ'Ã Ã °lthÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾ugh mÃÆ'Ã Ã °y ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾ccur with ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢tÃÆ'Ã Ã °bliÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢hÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µd firmÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ but thÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ wÃÆ'Ã Ã °y ÃÆ'Ã Ã °nd mÃÆ'Ã Ã °nnÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µr thiÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ iÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ dÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã Ã °lt with ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µm tÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾ bÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ diffÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µrÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µnt frÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾m thÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢tÃÆ'Ã Ã °rt up cÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾mpÃÆ'Ã Ã °niÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢. ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ccÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾rding tÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾ ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ rchibÃÆ'Ã Ã °ld ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µt ÃÆ'Ã Ã °l (2002), ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢tÃÆ'Ã Ã °bliÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢hÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µd cÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾mpÃÆ'Ã Ã °niÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ ÃÆ'Ã Ã °rÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ mÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾rÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ intÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µrÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢tÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µd in idÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µntifying ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾ptimÃÆ'Ã Ã °l ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢trÃÆ'Ã Ã °tÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µgiÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ which ÃÆ'Ã Ã °rÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ ÃÆ'Ã Ã °imÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µd ÃÆ'Ã Ã °t mÃÆ'Ã Ã °ximiÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ing thÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µir prÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾fit, whilÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢tÃÆ'Ã Ã °rt up cÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾mpÃÆ'Ã Ã °niÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾bjÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µctivÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ ÃÆ'Ã Ã °rÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ tÃÆ'Ã Ã °ilÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾rÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µd tÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾wÃÆ'Ã Ã °r dÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ mÃÆ'Ã Ã °ximiÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ing lÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾ng tÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µrm ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢urvivÃÆ'Ã Ã °l chÃÆ'Ã Ã °ncÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢. ThÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ purpÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾f thiÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ rÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã Ã °rch ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µxÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µrciÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ iÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ tÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾ ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µxÃÆ'Ã Ã °minÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ hÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾w ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢tÃÆ'Ã Ã °rt up cÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾mpÃÆ'Ã Ã °niÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ cÃÆ'Ã Ã °n bÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µnÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µfit frÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾m thÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ uÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾f ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾pÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µrÃÆ'Ã Ã °tiÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾nÃÆ'Ã Ã °l rÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã Ã °rch techniques in mÃÆ'Ã Ã °king bÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µttÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µr buÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢inÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ dÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µciÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢iÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾n. This research exercise identify challenges faced by start up companies from a functional departmental perspective e.g finance, marketing, production, purchasing and supply etc. The table below shows the different types of operational research techniques applicable in the different organisational departments or functions. Table 1 This resaerch exercise will also examine what operational research techniques are used in established companies and how they are used. This research exercise will also examine the usefulness of some of the techniques identified in table xxxx above based on their occurance in relevant literatures reviewed in chapter 2. ÃÆ'Ã Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦pÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µcificÃÆ'Ã Ã °lly, thiÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ rÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã Ã °rch prÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾jÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µctÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ intÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µndÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ tÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾ cÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾nÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢idÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µr thÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ fÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾llÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾wing ÃÆ'Ã Ã °imÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ ÃÆ'Ã Ã °nd ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾bjÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µctivÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢; TÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾ ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µxÃÆ'Ã Ã °minÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ thÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ chÃÆ'Ã Ã °llÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µngÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ fÃÆ'Ã Ã °cÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µd by ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢tÃÆ'Ã Ã °rt up cÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾mpÃÆ'Ã Ã °niÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ TÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾ ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µxÃÆ'Ã Ã °minÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ thÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ nÃÆ'Ã Ã °turÃ Æ'Ã ÃâÃ µ ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾f dÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µciÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢iÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾n mÃÆ'Ã Ã °king in ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢tÃÆ'Ã Ã °rt up cÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾mpÃÆ'Ã Ã °niÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ TÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾ cÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾mpÃÆ'Ã Ã °rÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ dÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µciÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢iÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾n mÃÆ'Ã Ã °king in ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢tÃÆ'Ã Ã °rt up cÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾mpÃÆ'Ã Ã °niÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ with thÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢tÃÆ'Ã Ã °bliÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢hÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µd ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾nÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ To exmaine what operational research techniques are used in established companies TÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾ idÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µntify which ÃÆ'Ã Ãâ¦Ã ¾R tÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾lÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ cÃÆ'Ã Ã °n ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢uppÃÆ'Ã Ãâ Ã ¾rt dÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µciÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢iÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾n mÃÆ'Ã Ã °king in ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢tÃÆ'Ã Ã °rt up cÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾mpÃÆ'Ã Ã °niÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ 1.3 Structure of the Research The structure of this research study is such that after this chapter ÃÆ'Ã Ã ° thorough review of literature will be conducted which will cover what start up companies are and the challenges faced by these category of companies, a review of decision making theory linked to the main functional areas in an organisation as mentioned in 1.2 above and also a review of some relevant management science techniques. The third chapter will focus on the research methodology which will include an introduction, research topic, research aim, research approach, research strategy and design, data gathering, research analysis and conclusion. The fourth chapter, the case study of the two companies (established and start up) interviewed will be reviewed. The chapter will include the following sub headings for each of the two companies; Introduction of the company, Company Overview, Analysis of the Operational Research techniques used in decision making, and a brief conclusion. The final c hapter which is the conclusion and recommendations will summarise the whole research exercise in the following sections; summary of research, research limitations, recommendations as well as suggestions for further research Chapter Three 3 Methodology 3.1 Introduction Research methodology refers to research process the procedural framework within which a research is conducted. This methodology is defined by Leedy (p.120) cited by Remenyi et al., 1998 (p.28) as an operational framework within which the facts are placed so that their meaning may be seen more clearly. Some methods provide data which are quantitative as well as some that are qualitative. Quantitative methods are those which focus on numbers as well as frequencies rather than on meaning as well experience. Quantitative methods (e.g. experiments questionnaires as well as psychometric tests) provide information which is easy to analyse statistically as well as fairly reliable. Quantitative methods are associated with the scientific as well as experimental approach as well as are criticised for not providing an in depth description. Qualitative methods are ways of collecting data which are concerned with describing meaning rather than with drawing statistical inferences. What qualitativ e methods (e.g. case studies as well as interviews) lose on reliability they gain in terms of validity. They provide ÃÆ'Ã Ã ° more in depth as well as rich description. Qualitative methods were used evaluate the user of operational research techniques in the two companies analysed in this research exercise. Quantitative are said to be systematic. Qualitative research is thought to be objective whereas quantitative research often involves ÃÆ'Ã Ã ° subjective element. It is thought that in gaining, analysing as well as interpreting quantitative data the researcher can remain detached as well as objective. Often this is not possible with qualitative research where the researcher may actually be involved in the situation of research (Jankowicz p.16). 3.2 Research Objectives The main aim of research was to examine how operational research techniques can support decision making in start up companies. Specifically, the basic objective was: TÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾ ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µxÃÆ'Ã Ã °minÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ thÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ chÃÆ'Ã Ã °llÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µngÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ fÃÆ'Ã Ã °cÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µd by ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢tÃÆ'Ã Ã °rt up cÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾mpÃÆ'Ã Ã °niÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ TÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾ ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µxÃÆ'Ã Ã °minÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ thÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ nÃÆ'Ã Ã °turÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾f dÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µciÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢iÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾n mÃÆ'Ã Ã °king in ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢tÃÆ'Ã Ã °rt up cÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾mpÃÆ'Ã Ã °niÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ TÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾ cÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾mpÃÆ'Ã Ã °rÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ dÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µciÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢iÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾n mÃÆ 'Ã Ã °king in ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢tÃÆ'Ã Ã °rt up cÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾mpÃÆ'Ã Ã °niÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ with thÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µ ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢tÃÆ'Ã Ã °bliÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢hÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µd ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾nÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ To exmaine what operational rsearch techniques are used in established companies TÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾ idÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µntify which ÃÆ'Ã Ãâ¦Ã ¾R tÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾ÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾lÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ cÃÆ'Ã Ã °n ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢uppÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾rt dÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µciÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢iÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾n mÃÆ'Ã Ã °king in ÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢tÃÆ'Ã Ã °rt up cÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ ¾mpÃÆ'Ã Ã °niÃÆ'Ã ÃâÃ µÃÆ'Ã¢â¬ËÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢ 3.3 Research Approach The study proposed in this paper was ÃÆ'Ã Ã ° qualitative survey study. Qualitative methods were utilized because the research was based on primary (e.g. surveys) data collection (Goldberg 2006). Basically the quantitative approach pursues facts as well as is employed when researchers desire to acquire statistical truth. According to Gall as well as Borg (2003), quantitative research assumes that the social environment has objective reality that is relatively constant across time as well as settings while qualitative research assumes that individuals construct reality in the form of meanings as well as interpretations as well as that these constructions tend to be transitory as well as situational. Qualitative approach aims to discover meanings as well as interpretations by studying cases intensively in natural settings as well as by subjecting the resulting data to analytic induction (Gall as well as Borg 2003). 3.4 Research Strategy Instrument An interview was conducted with the use of a list of questions developed to identify the various operational research techniques used by Company A and John Biola in making decisions. The interview questions were focused on of which operational research techniques were mainly used i.e. soft or hard OR techniques, how this techniques are used and how as it supported decision making. As this study aims to gain an understanding of the management science techniques that can support start up companies in decision making therefore the survey interview and questions used was deemed more appropriate for qualitative approach of this study as compare to other methods. Therefore survey interview with questions were used to analyze the research questions. So the qualitative approach of this study was based on interview investigation. A questionnaire is essentially ÃÆ'Ã Ã ° data capture instrument. It lists all the questions to which the researcher wants the respondents to answer as well as it records the response of participants. Survey research is method of gathering data from respondents thought to be representative of some population using an instrument composed of closed structure or open-ended items (questions). It is one of most dominant forms of data collection in the social sciences providing for efficient collection of data over broad populations amenable to self-administration in person by telephone via mail as well as over the Internet. Participants Interviews were conducted with staff of Company A strategy development team with the consent of senior management and John Biolas managing director. Procedure For the purpose of research, the meeting with one of the managers of Company A and the director in John Biola was held to explain to them the purpose of survey as well as also find out from them the type of techniques used in supporting decision making as well as the challenges facing John Biola (start up) and Company A (established). After the approval from the mangers and director in the two companies respectively, the interview was conducted with staff in business architecture team for Company A, and two managers (Finance and Operations) in John Biola. The main focus while conducting the interviews was the confidentiality of responses and the materials (data) supplied. It was ensured that the established company name will be revealed. 3.5 Reliability validity The survey instrument should have validity as well as reliability. Validity is whether the instruments are really measuring what they are supposed to measure. Reliability means that the survey instrument is providing ÃÆ'Ã Ã ° consistent measure. This survey instrument measured what it claimed to be measuring thus providing ÃÆ'Ã Ã ° consistent measure indicating that the survey instrument was ÃÆ'Ã Ã ° valid as well as reliable instrument. One way to assess validity would be to have the social validation assessment developed or reviewed by ÃÆ'Ã Ã ° panel of experts or judges who are not involved directly in the research. Another method would be to have ÃÆ'Ã Ã ° social validation assessment of social validation instrument. 3.6 Ethical Issues Researcher was fully aware of ethical issues involved in this work. Responsibility for all procedures as well as ethical issues related to project rests with the principal researcher. Research was conducted in such ÃÆ'Ã Ã ° way that the integrity of research enterprise is maintained as well as negative after-effects which might diminish the potential for future research were avoided. The choice of research issues was based on the best scientific judgment as well as on an assessment of potential benefit to participants as well as society in relation to risk to be borne by the participants. This study was related to an important strategic decision making issue. The researcher was aware of any potential harmful effects; in such circumstances as well as the chosen method was used after consultation with colleagues as well as other experts. Full justification for method chosen was given. The research was conducted in ÃÆ'Ã Ã ° competent fashion as an objective scientific project as well as without bias. The research was carried out in full compliance with as well as awareness of local customs standards laws as well as regulations. The researcher was familiar with as well as respect the host culture. 3.7 Confidentiality Full confidentiality of all information as well as the anonymity of Companies involved was maintained. Participating companies were informed of any potential limitations to confidentiality of any information supplied. Procedures were put in place to protect the confidentiality of information as well as the anonymity of companies in all research materials. Participating companies will be offered access to research results presented in ÃÆ'Ã Ã ° manner as well as language they can understand. All researches were reported widely with objectivity as well as integrity. Researcher provided adequate information in all publications findings to be properly assessed. Limits of reliability as well as applicability were made clear. Researcher is responsible for properly acknowledging the unpublished as well as published work of other scholars. Finally all research materials were preserved in ÃÆ'Ã Ã ° manner that respects the agreements made with participating companies. It was reassured that the identity of all participating companies will remained confidential as well as the data sets throughout the study. 3.8 Conclusion In this study, the researcher proposed the research design to examine the operational research techniques that can support decision making in start up companies. The study used ÃÆ'Ã Ã ° qualitative methodology as well as utilized ÃÆ'Ã Ã ° survey interview with prepared list of questions. The analysis of participants response, data and information gathered would help to determine the answers to research questions stated above. Chapter Four 4 Case Study 4.1 Introduction to Company A Company A is one of the largest providers of electricity to consumers in the UK. It generates about 20% of the UKs electricity covering about 8million homes and businesses. The companys group activities include generation, transmission, and distribution, trading and supply of other energy services. With about 38milloin customers worldwide, Company A has a share capital of around Ã £1.3m and its growing to become one of UKs largest energy company through its involvement in major projects and development in the country. The company is structured into five business units each responsible for making its own business decision but with central unit supporting all business units in decision making through the user of appropriate techniques and methodologies. Company A Challenges Decision Making Company A was faced with the challenge of managing the performance of its activities with a view to achieving one or more pre-selected goals. Some of the challenges which were of utmost priority to Company A in relation to decision making are as follows; Ability to drive desired behaviors through a strategy based framework. Ability to use what if analysis, scenario planning, optimization and simulation techniques for predictive planning and modeling business outcomes Ability to drive business outcomes which focuses on leading non-financial outcomes through techniques such as balanced scorecards, strategy mapping, performance prism etc Ability to link strategic goals to operational activities and identify what activities are critical to the success of the business As a result of this challenge, Company A developed a performance management framework which is aimed at focusing on the achievement of its ambitions by driving change and informing decision making through pe rformance measurement. The performance framework is aimed to deliver the following; Performance metrics fully aligned to strategy development and execution, service delivery and business operations Integrated, interactive and accessible performance information Well defined performance management processes to ensure quality and consistency Increased employee engagement and understanding of the company strategy and performance targets to deliver a fundamental culture shift Metric driven medium term planning processes and decision making Enhanced diagnostics capability to determine cause and effect impacts on metrics Company A- Application of Operational Research Techniques Company A made use of three soft operational research techniques in the development of its performance management framework which is aimed at addressing the challenges facing the company as listed in section 4.1.1 above. These techniques are Balanced Scorecard, Strategy Maps and Performance Prism. Company A further developed its own operational research technique which is like a modified version of the Balanced Scorecard this it called a general classification. These operational research techniques were defined both in its generic theoretical terms and modified versions for Company A. The initial purpose these operational research techniques served were: To enable easy search and interrogation of the companys performance catalogue To group performance metrics in order to answer possible questions that may come from the companys business units To help identify relevant performance metrics which will support specific business objectives To allow for easy utilization repo rting of performance information The operational research techniques were defined in there generic theoretical terms and in Company A modified version as follows; Balanced Scorecard Financial: A measure of financial performance in relation to meeting our budgeted cost of services we aim to provide to our customers within the business as well as achieving cost reduction with economic value added. Customers: How should we appear to our customers within the business be it Networks, .., This encompasses such measures as customer satisfaction, customer response time and quality of services provided to our customers. Internal Business Process: What processes must we excel at in order to consistently satisfy our customers? Learning Growth: How should we sustain our ability to change and improve? This category of metrics will measure the ability of our employees (both internal staff and external contractors consultants), information systems be it SAP or Oracle, and organisational procedures in terms of governance framework to manage the business and adapt to change. Strategy Maps Financial Perspective Productivity: How well are we achieving our value for money proposition? This will include cost reduction strategies and efficient utilization of asset. Growth: How well are we strengthening our financial position through deepening relationships with existing customers and reaching out to new customers internally? Customer Perspective Service Attributes: The provision of services which are cost effective, high quality, readily available, reliable and timely with a range of options to select from. Relationships: Are we providing knowledgeable solutions and superior customer services? Do we have a win-win partnership with our customers? Image: How are we seen by our customers and the public? Are we partners in the community, are we responsible citizens, and are trusted as good services providers by our customers. Internal Business Process Perspective Operations Management: How do we provide and deliver services to our customers? This process focuses on supplier relationship management, provision and distribution of services to customers and management of operational risk. Customer Management: How do we enhance how customer value? The focus of this process type is on how we deepen relationships with customers. Innovation: How good are we at providing new services for our customers? These processes involve the identification, designing and developing new services and also managing RD and bring new services to customers. Regulatory Social: Are we conforming to regulations, meeting societal expectations and building stronger communities? This relates to the level of compliance to regulations such as environment, health safety and employment practices. It also involves the management of our corporate social responsibility in communities where we operate. Learning Growth Perspective Human Capital: Skills in quality management /process improvement. The availability of skills, talents and know-how to perform activities required for the strategy. It involves attracting, growing and retaining the best people. Information Capital: Technology that facilitates process improvement. The availability of information systems, knowledge applications and infrastructure required to support the organisational strategy. Organisation Capital: The availability to mobilise and sustain the process of change required to execute an organisational strategy. This covers aspects like: Cultural: awareness about internalization of shared mission and values Leadership: availability of qualified leaders to mobilize the organisation towards its strategies Alignment: alignment of goals and incentives with the strategy at all organisational levels Teamwork: sharing of knowledge and staff assets Performance Prism Stakeholder Satisfaction: The value expected by various interested parties within the company which varies depending on the type of stakeholder group and the project or activities they are involved in. Stakeholder Contribution: This defines what the company wants from the various interested parties in its internal activities. This will be the contribution from the interested parties in whatever project or activities that will support the achievement of the companys ambitions. Strategies: The strategies to be put in place in order to achieve the companys ambitions. This could be specific actions, task or projects executed to deliver stakeholder value. Processes: These are processes that need to be put in place in order to satisfy stakeholders wants and needs. They could be cross-functional and represents the blue-prints for what work is done, where, when and how it will be executed. It is basically the governance structure in the company. Capabilities: The combination of the companies practices, technology and infrastructure that collectively represents our ability to create value for our stakeholders. General Governance: An assessment of strengths and weaknesses in existing management arrangements, including gaps between theory espoused and theory practised and to assess differences in management performance between (and within) undertakings and over time. Learning Growth: How well are we improving our capacity to deliver? This category of metrics is concerned with the delivery of training to improve skills or change embedded culture to improve for example risk or commercial awareness. Performance: How well are we actually delivering to target? These metrics will be derived from service or process specific measures. Transformation: How well are we implementing our transformation initiatives? This category of metrics is concerned with how we identify, leverage and even create new underlying principles for the way we do things. Each of the operational research techniques defined above were then mapped to the companys performance metrics and key performance indicators containe d in the performance catalogue. The mappings were carried out to enable users of the performance catalogue identify which key performance indicators or metrics will support the realization of their strategic objectives which can be identified using of the soft operational research techniques. The mapping involved an understating of the definition of each of the performance metrics and key indicators, then assigning the appropriate category or sub element of the each operational research technique. Below are two examples of the application of the of the operational research techniques to the performance catalogue in Company A. Example 1 Performance Indicator Name: % of processes defined as per process delivery plan Performance Indicator Definition: Process defined in accordance with agreed standards as per process delivery plan Operational Research Technique Mapping General: Governance Balanced Scorecard: Internal Business Process Strategy Maps: Operations Management Performance Prism: Processes Example 2 Performance Indicator Name: % of resource request fulfil within agreed timescale Performance Indicator Definition: The % of resource request fulfilled within reporting month, and Year to Date, that were fulfilled with 30 working days from the date of receipt. Operational Research Technique Mapping General: Performance Balanced Scorecard: Customer Strategy Maps: Service Attributes Performance Prism: Stakeholder Satisfaction 4.2 Introduction to John Biola London John Biola a growing African supermarket based in London which specializes mainly in the sales of West African perishable and non perishable food as well as kitchen and other home items. Its product range cut across the following grocery, fish, meat, drinks, snacks, vegetables fruits. The Company started operations in 2006 and currently has 3 branches in London. It has a workforce of 35 people of which xxxx are management staff, xxxx are administrative staff and the rest are store assistants and butchers. Over the last three years, its annual turnover on average has been in the region of Ã £xxx with profit of xx% in the last year. Organisational Structure The companys organisational structure can be described as a combination of simple or entrepreneurial departmental structure. The company reflects a an entrepreneurial structure because it is a small firm dominated with a single entrepreneur, the two directors intervene in virtually all decisions made by store managers in John Biola. The company also portrays the characteristics of departmental or divisional structure because it has branches which are headed by managers and they make decisions to a certain level. The organisational structure is depicted below: Challenges Decision Making The company faces enormous challenges in which the company requires strategic guidance and direction to overcome. The major areas of challenges and decision making are explained below: Demand Supply of Goods to Stores John Biola determines its supplies based on the goods available in stock at any given time. Each store is supplied a predetermined quantity of stock items whenever there is a stock request from the stores. These predetermined quantity of stock items are standard set or used initially when stores were opened and reviewed two or three times later for different stores. The standard quantity delivered varies for different stores. Stock request are made to the central store when there are continuous demand for certain goods from customers, and also when store managers or assistants visibly determine a low stock item. Very often the central store delivery officer supplies stock items to stores even where there is no request from the stores. This happens when there are stock items left in delivery van. Goods from Suppliers The central store makes request for stock items from its supplies through the store officer but approved by any of the two directors of the company. The quantities of goods / stock required from suppliers are determined based on the following: When stock fall below a certain level At a fixed periodic interval Continuous request / demand from customers in different stores The costs of supplies / purchases are normally constant over a period time except where: Oil prices rises i.e. due to imports of stock items from overseas Unexpected / natural disasters i.e. recent volcanic ash eruptions which lead to fall supply of African food stock hence a rise in purchase cost. Staff Management As mentioned earlier in the company introduction, John Biola employs xxx staff. One of the main challenges facing the company is how it can manage its shop floor staff in order to reduce labour overhead and maximise available labour through determining an appropriate labour requirement at any given point in time. Data IT Management Sales data are captured once goods are sold to customers at the cashiers till. Some of the stock items have bar codes which registers on the till systems at the point on sale terminal, but majority (80%) of the stock items do not have this bar codes making it very difficult to capture the type stock item sold. Whenever a stock item does not have a bar code, the item will normally have a small sticker with the item price printed on it. This price is manually inputted on the point on sale terminal. The data captured from the point of sale terminal are used for accounting and tax purposes. 4.3 Application of Operational Research Techniques 4.4 Conclusion Chapter Five 5 Conclusion Recommendations 5.1 Summary of Research Findings The research project has focus extensively on the use of some operational research techniques which can be classified as hard and soft techniques. The hard techniques reviewed in the research project are Linear Programming, Decision Tree, EOQ and Network Analysis. These techniques are much more complex to apply in organisations be it start ups or established companies. The soft techniques application on the other hand tends to be common in established, some of these examined in this project are balanced scorecard, strategy maps, performance prism and scenario planning. In general, application of operational research techniques in start up firms is very limited and this may be as a result of lack of awareness of the techniques by entrepreneurs and availability of information. The case study analysis from the two companies Company A (start up) and John Biola (established) revealed the extent of use of these techniques. 5.2 Research Limitations Operational research is a growing a field which is not well known to a lot of people both in the academia and industry unlike other fields like finance, IT, medicine etc. This limitation has made it difficult for the researcher to gather as much information particularly from start up companies on the use of operational research techniques. The interviews conducted with the two companies used in the case study exercise were possible due to the researchers personal relationship with the informants. It was the intention of the researcher to interview at least three companies in each of start up and established companies, but only one of each of the types of companies were interviewed. This was as a result of difficulty identifying companies that are willing to participate as most companies were reluctant in disclosing information. Although, conducting the interviews with company A and John Biola was enough to get an understanding of what operational research techniques are used in th e start up and established companies, but conducting interviews with more companies would have availed the researcher examine other techniques and factors that may affect the use of operational research in supporting decision making. 5.3 Recommendations Based on the various revived literatures on start up challenges, operational research techniques and both case studies of company A and John Biola, there is a possibility of a applying some of the operational research techniques used in Company A which is an established company but modified to suit and address challenges facing John Biola. It is also possible to use some of the techniques discussed in the literature to support decision making in John Biola. These operational research techniques that can support John Biola in decision making are: Demand Supply Management: The Company can apply Economic Ordering Quantity model to support its decision making in the establishing the optimal quantity of stock items to order at any given point in time. This can easily be applied to John Biola because from the company case study analysis, the company does request supply of stock from suppliers on a fairly fixed period basis and almost constant stock demand of goods. These are som e of the key assumptions surrounding the use of the Economic Order Quantity model. Although the usefulness of this model in John Biola has been established, but for this to work properly the requirements of the company should be well analysed and model modified accordingly. Staff Management: John Biola also benefit from the use of linear and Integer programming technique to resolve the challenge the company faces in relation to reducing cost of labour and maximising the available labour at any point in time. The use of this technique can produce optimal number of staff to be deployed on the shop floor for different times of the day or days of a week since the customer patronage varies on different times and days. Just as the EOQ technique mentioned above, the linear programming technique will also require a thorough requirement analysis and design to utilize and get the best from the technique. Forecasting: John Biola should introduce the use of bar codes on most of the sto ck which will hold stock data as it is with some of the stock items. By implementing this, the company can easily use the data captured on the point on sale terminal to drive the following: More accurate management accounting and tax information for decision making Product profitability analysis of on the different stock items Forecasting of seasonal or periodic sales information Easier and up to date stock reconciliation Use of Strategy Analyst: Employment of a strategy / business analyst who will be responsible for providing strategic and operational guidance and direction for the business through: Forecasting customer demand and sales Preparing strategic analysis and modelling to support the companies objectives Providing optimal pricing strategy and competitor analysis using appropriate techniques Identifying optimal stock level and re-order level for the business Providing training to store managers on stock management control Application of Strategy Maps in John Biola Learning Growth John Biola should understand its intangible assets that will enable it create value for its customers by defining the following: Human Capital: Developing skills and sharing knowledge amongst the staff in John Biola. Provision of adequate training for the store assistants and managers in order to be more efficient and effective in delivery of their role and responsibilities. Information Capital: Development of an IT system with database linked to the point on sale terminal which will capture and store sales transaction details. Appropriate IT network should be in place to enable easy generation of up to date stock information. Organisation Capital: The directors of John Biola should ensure that the culture of the company is well understood by all the staff, and encourage teamwork amongst the store staff. These clusters of assets in John Biola identified and defined above will serve as the building blocks for the internal business processes defined below. Internal Perspective These are processes within John Biola which will transform the companys cluster of intangible assets customer and financial opportunities and perspectives. Operations Management Processes: The Company should put on place robust processes that will deliver efficient sales services to its customers. E.g. fast sales / services turnaround Customer Management Processes: By selling multiple products to customers, advising customers on the appropriate product option based on their needs, John Biola can easily enhance and improve its customer value. Innovative Processes: In order to be better competitive, John Biola should improve on the processes which generates leads to new products in market back in Africa and make this available to its customers. This can be carrying out research constantly in African market hence investing in research and development. Regulatory Social: The Company should ensure that there are processes in place that monitors its environmental and soci al responsibility commitments to the society. It should ensure that there process which monitors the proper management of waste from it poultry and meat products hence a measure of its health and safety commitment. It should put in place governance processes to ensure that employment laws rights are strictly adhered. Customer Perspective This aspect defines the conditions that must be in place within John Biola to create and improve value to its customers. Product / Service Attributes: The management of John Biola make available variety of good quality African food items at competitive prices based on the needs of their customers. This will enable the company to attract and retain new existing customers. Financial Perspective This is point where the cluster of intangible assets in John Biola will be transformed to tangible assets. It demonstrates the cause and effect relationship from all the activities and assets in the company. Productivity: The ability of the company to reduce its overhead mainly labour from the identification and elimination of redundant processes within its operations. This will result in John Biola reducing cost of servicing its customers and passing the cost savings to customers. Growth: The management of John Biola can expand its revenue potentials based on the customer value proposition it has created in terms of its image in within the African community by opening up new stores in areas where African are domiciled. See strategy map diagram of John Biola below 5.4 Suggestions for Further Research It is highly important to point out that the application of operational research techniques in established companies can be very complicated let alone its application in start up companies. This research exercise has highlighted the need for further research activities to be conducted in established companies and operational research techniques. The focus of the research project was on how operational research techniques can support decision making, a further interesting area of study can be on the relevance of operational research techniques in making decision for established companies in developing countries like Nigeria. This is because an initial interview with some mangers within established companies in the region revealed the lack of awareness of these techniques. Critical Appraisal Appendix
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
NOVA Ã¢â¬Å"Earth From SpaceÃ¢â¬ 1. They describe at least three teleconnections in the film. The movie talks about sandstorms in the Sahara Desert transforming the rainforest across the globe. We will write a custom essay sample on Earth from Space or any similar topic only for you Order Now Also explained are the waterfalls under the sea in Antarctica, leading to a feeding frenzy in the ocean by the equator. Finally, they talked about streaming water off the coast of Africa causing a disastrous weather storm in the United States. This happens because all of the activity in the ocean, sun and atmosphere are bound together. When an action occurs to one of them, a reaction occurs within another. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s almost like a butterfly effect that occurs between the three. 2. We can learn and visually see all these different parts of the Earth by using satellites. I. Geosphere (Solid Earth) The Geosphere is made up of mostly rock. Beneath the surface of Earth, forces inside are a crucial source for the basic materials that nurture life. Volcanoes and earthquakes are examples of reactions to disturbances that initially took place under the EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s surface. Although destructive, the natural forces behind these events also provide the materials we and other living organisms need to survive. Through satellites we can see that the EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s crust is constantly moving. II. Cryosphere (Ice sheets, glaciers, sea ice) The Cryosphere can be observed from space using satellites. The reason the Cryosphere doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t receive much heat from the sun is because the sun strikes these regions at an oblique angle and any heat that does reach the cryosphere is reflected back into space by the sheets of ice covering it. III. Atmosphere (Gases, clouds, weather) As water vapor evaporates from the ocean it works its way up into the atmosphere and eventually creates clouds, who size depends on how much water vapor was evaporated. The heat that water vapors carried before they became clouds is eventually what triggers storms to occur. If there is enough heat influencing the clouds it will cause the clouds to shoot upward and the rotation of the Earth is what makes them spin. If the clouds turn into a vortex, hurricanes are formed. IV. Biosphere (Life on Earth) Life on Earth is affected by all the other parts of the Earth including internally and externally. The catastrophic storms that are caused by the atmosphere effect life on Earth more and more every year. Mother Nature is so unpredictable and it is very hard, even with all of earth-observing technologies humans have created, to prepare for EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s catastrophic events. It is even harder for other organisms to survive that do not have the same knowledge about technology as humans do. When hurricanes, tsunamis, and earthquakes do occur, it is instincts that ultimately help different species survive. V. Hydrosphere (Oceans, lakes, rivers) The hydrosphere plays a big part in the water cycle. Energy from the sun causes evaporation from all wet surfaces on the earth. Because the earth is two thirds water, the oceans are important for homeostasis on the planet Earth. The water helps the atmosphere function properly and vice versa. Without one there would be no other. The ocean and lakes are also the homes to millions of organisms. Some believe the ocean is even where the first walks of life were formed. Ocean circulation greatly affects climate and weather. . One NASAÃ¢â¬â¢s newest satellites named Polar Orbiting Suomi, after a meteorologist, is an electronic eye in space that measure the impact of the sunÃ¢â¬â¢s energy all around the Earth. This satellite can see much more of the electromagnetic spectrum then the human eye can. One of this satellitesÃ¢â¬â¢ key instruments in called Cloud and EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s Radiant Energy System. It helps detect the ultraviolet and infrared par ts of the spectrum that we canÃ¢â¬â¢t see. This instrument helps detect anything on Earth that gives off heat. Aqua is a satellite that uses another earth- observing technology that monitors the interaction between heat and water. Aqua uses infrared to analyze the temperature of water. Using the infrared, Aqua can see how much water vapor is evaporating from the ocean into the atmosphere. TRIM is a satellite equipped with a radar and imager that operate in the micro wave range of the electromagnetic spectrum. These radio waves are higher in energy and shorter in wavelength than others. The instruments on this satellite bounce micro waves off raindrops in the clouds allowing scientist to build a three imensional structure of the internal structure of a hurricane. 4. Scale I. The temporal resolution specifies the revisiting frequency of a satellite sensor for a specific location. A low temporal resolution can last greater than 16 days whereas a high temporal resolution will last only up to 3 days. II. Using satellite remote sensing we can view the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s surface as frequently as we woul d like too. As long as the satellites are working efficiently there should be no problem. III. The spatial resolution specifies the pixel size of satellite images covering the earth surface. IV. The level of detail does depend on what the satellites are observing. The different spatial, temporal and spectral resolutions are the limiting factor for the utilization of the data they find. Unfortunately, because of technical constraints, satellite systems can only offer the following relationship between spatial and spectral resolution. Ether a high spatial resolution is associated with a low spectral resolution and vice versa. That means that a system with a high spectral resolution can only offer a medium or low spatial resolution. Therefore, it is either necessary to find compromises between the different resolutions according to the individual application or to utilize alternative methods of data acquisition. 5. I found the most striking thing in this movie to be, how easily events like hurricanes, volcanoes, and tsunamis could be created. A little bit too much moisture in the atmosphere or a little disturbance in the Earth could eventually lead to a disastrous, possibly life threatening event. This movie made me grateful to live in an area that is not as highly affected by natural disasters and sympathetic towards those that do. How to cite Earth from Space, Essay examples
Sunday, May 3, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Data Analytics and Visualisation System. Answer: Introduction The cost of medical malpractice in the US is very high and exceeds $ 50 billion. Due to this, there is a upward pressure on the health care costs coupled with a higher premium for insurance related to medical malpractice. One of the known health insurance provider in US is the UnitedHealth Group which aims for a better understanding of the claims raised on account of medical malpractice. In order to achieve this objective, claims data for 200 random claimants has been provided which comprises of information related to the claim amount, severity, gender, hiring of private attorney or not, age, marital status presence/absence of insurance coupled with speciality. The given report aims to present the findings of the statistical analysis of the data provided in wake of the specific questions that my manager Edmond Kendrick has raised in the email. Through the requisite statistical analysis, the report would aim to answer the queries raised in relation to the claims data. An overall summary of the claim payment amount has been indicated in Appendix 1. The average or mean claim payment amount has come out to be $ 73,457.49. Also, it is estimated that 50% of provided sample claim amount is lesser than or equal to $72,571.38. Further, the claim value of $ 5,400 seems to have the highest frequency in the sample data. The dispersion of the claim amount values in the sample data seem to be quite high considering that the lowest value of claim amount is $ 1,547 while the highest value of claim amount is $ 228,724. 80. Also, the standard deviation of the claim amount from the mean or average claim value stands at $ 32,178.50. Additionally, it is noticeable that the distribution of the claim amount is not symmetric considering the fact that there are certain claim amounts which are unusually large and hence considered outliers in the provided sample data. With a likelihood of 95%, it can be stated that the average age of the claimants for the population would lie between 42 years and 47 years. The requisite computation for the same is highlighted. With a likelihood of 95%, it can be stated that the mean proportion of claimants with No Insurance for the population would lie between 5.03% and 12.97%. The requisite computation for the same is highlighted. Based on the given claim sample data, it would be appropriate to conclude with 95% confidence that the average claim amount paid by the industry has dropped below $ 77,500. The requisite computation for the same is highlighted. Using the claim severity data presented, it can be stated with 95% likelihood that the study indicating that 75% of the patients fall either in MILD or MEDIUM severity condition continues to be valid for the current year as well. The computation for the same is illustrated. Considering the gender trends in the provided claims data concerning the severity of the claims, it can be inferred that there no significant difference in proportion of male and female patients in the category of "MILD or MEDIUM claims. The relevant computation for the same is illustrated. Also, the given sample data does suggest that the payment amount does tend to depend on the fact whether the claimant is represented by a private attorney or not. This is apparent from the fact that the average claim amount of claimants represented by private attorneys tends to be higher than the corresponding claim amount of claimants not represented by private attorneys. The relevant computation for the same is illustrated. The given data provided on claims does not lend support to the assertion that private attorneys tend to have higher representation for SEVERE claims as compared to MEDIUM claims. Hence, the statement is not valid. The relevant calculations to support the above conclusion are illustrated. The given claims data does not lend support to the assertion that SEVERE claims tend to be higher for Orthopedic surgeon in comparison to other specialists. Infact, the results derived in Appendix 4A tend to highlight that the difference between the SEVERE claims proportion for the two does not show any significant difference and hence can be assumed to be same. The given claims data does not lend support to the assertion that average claim amount for SEVERE claims tend to be higher for Orthopedic surgeon in comparison to other specialists. Infact, the results derived in Appendix 4B tend to highlight that the difference between the SEVERE claims average amount for the two does not show any significant difference and hence can be assumed to be same. Conclusion Based on the above analysis, useful conclusions can be drawn about the claims data. It may be concluded that the average age of the claimants tends to lie between 42 and 47 years. Also, most of these claimants tend to have insurance since only a very small proportion (about 5-12%) does not have insurance. The average claim amount has now dropped below $ 77,500. Further, it can also be concluded that 75% of the claims belong to the MILD or MEDIUM category and hence only 25% of the claims fall in the SEVERE category. Also, there are no gender specific differences between the proportions of MILD or MEDIUM category claims. Besides, it may be also concluded that the average claim amount tends to be higher when a private attorney represents the claimant. However, no significant difference is observed between the representation proportion of MEDIUM and SEVERE claims with regards to private attorney. Also, the assertions regards higher proportion and average claim amount for orthopaedic rela ted SEVERE claims in comparison with other specialists has been found incorrect as no evidence is present for the same.
Friday, March 27, 2020
Macbeth Tragism Macbeth's vaulting ambition, though it is what brings him to his height of power, it is also what leads him to his downfall. Vaulting Ambition is Macbeth's only flaw; it disables him to achieve his utmost goals and forces him to face his fate. Without this ambition, though, Macbeth never would have been able to achieve his power as King of Scotland or have been able to carry out his evil deeds. In these instances, ambition helped Macbeth do what he wanted to do. But, consequently, Macbeth's ambition has another face and is what leads him to his tragic downfall. Had he not been so enveloped with becoming King and remaining powerful, he would not have continued to kill innocent people in order to keep his position. It was because of these killings and his overbearing attitude that caused him to be overthrown and killed himself. Macbeth, at the beginning of the play seems to be a very noble person. He is characterized as being very loyal and honorable. He fights in the battle against Norway which proves his loyalty, then he is appointed Thane of Cawdor which proves that he is honorable in the eyes of royalty. However, as soon as the witches spark ambition in him, he is no longer trustworthy and becomes evil and deceiving. Even before he reaches his home, thoughts of murder creep into his head and he is overcome with the desire to be powerful. The prince of Cumberland: that is a step on which I must not fall down, or else oerleap, for in my way it lies. Stars, hide your fires, let not light see my black and deep desires, the eye wink at the hand. Yet let that be, which the eye fears when it is done to see (Shakespeare 21). At this point in the play, Macbeth's ambition starts to come into view. The seed has been planted, and there is no turning back. Macbeth becomes bloodthirsty and powerstricken forcing himself further and further into a web of ambition from which he is unable to detatch himself. Macbeth's ambition is what allowed him to become powerful. Without ambition, it is impossible to achieve goals. Therefore, ambition is what allowed Macbeth to overcome his obstacles and come closer to his final goals. As soon as he developed the trait of vaulting ambition, Macbeth is able to make his life fall into place exactly the way he wants it to. He first murders Duncan so that he will become king. Macbeth's ambition is directly the cause of this tragic incident. This murder is in cold evil blood by Macbeth's own hand; at this point he starts seeking his future on his own and will overcome any obstacles in his way. Then, Macbeth ventures on even farther to protect his crown. He proceeds in his evil plans by killing Banquo. This is the climax of the play as well as the height of Macbeth's vualting ambition. Macbeth, up to this point, is almost drunk with his own power and ambition. He does not even hesitate to make rash decisions. He is obsessed with reigning as king, but does not realize that what he is doing to make himself more powerful is actually leading him to a tragic and fatal downfall."Ruthless seeking after power by Macbeth, urged on by his wife, is the tragic flaw that causes his downfall" (Shakespeare, Themes 162). First of all, he resorts to spying on Macduff and makes the rash decision to seize his castle. "Seize upon Fife, give to th'edge o'th'sword His wife, his babes, and all infortunate souls that trace him in his line" (Shakespeare 107). This causes Macbeth to seem tyrannical and results in more people turning against him. He is only interested in himself and his power, but does not even take into consideration that his actions are causing him to be less powerful. Macbeth, while trying to stay powerful, also becomes paranoid. He never feels like he is at his height of power, and therefore feels like others were out to take his power away from him. Macbeth, then goes to whatever lengths he can to stay powerful. He murders numerous people which causes King Edward of England to organize troops to overthrow him. Anything that happens to Macbeth is traced back to his vaulting ambition. This ambition is to be blamed for his great power, as well as his downfall. Macbeths entire character is an example of this quote by Shakespeare: "The heavens themselves, the planets and
Friday, March 6, 2020
Flexi Timings for Employees in an IT Organization Free Online Research Papers Objective Now days every organization is looking out for new ways and efficient and effective workforce planning mechanisms which can help them increase their productivity, make proper utilization of the resources (especially human resources) and provide complete employee satisfaction. Flexi-Time working is being accepted by more and more number of organizations now days because it is highly effective in providing complete employee satisfaction and helps the organizations to increase its productivity. There are many reasons why organisations should consider a more flexible approach to working patterns and leave arrangements. The benefits can be wide-ranging and long-lasting as well as providing short term solutions. As a business case will demonstrate, investing in employee well-being makes good business sense, not only in terms of improving performance, raising morale and reducing stress, but also improving attraction, recruitment and retention performance. Ã¢â¬Å"Companies that allow their staff to work flexibly reap handsome dividends. It is a case of a little going a long way.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Work organisation and flexible working practices that benefit both the employer and the individual, will characterize the high performance work place of the future.Ã¢â¬ Efficiency, Effectiveness and retaining the employees for longer period can be got through Flexi working approach. The purpose of this article is to report findings from a study taken up on an IT organization (Navaraga Corporation held at Hyderabad) which gave up flexible working to its employees by using web collaborations tools and to examine the impact on the work and employees. Navaraga Corporation held at Hyderabad had been actively promoting this approach for several years and have measured the benefits across a wide range of criteria over a significant time period. Methodology Navaraga Corporation, has introduced a policy for flexible working since the time it started operations in hyderabad. The types of flexible plans are: a) Being available in core hours at office and remaining time can be considered flexi time b) Geographically dispersed work teams working from their location. c) Individuals taken up as special cases and would be considered working from home for a limited period Ã¢â¬â like employees who have small children etc. d) During unexpected incidents like bandÃ¢â¬â¢s, curfews etc also flexi working from home had been considered. Let us look into this flexible plans in detail: a) Being available in core hours at office and remaining time can be considered flexi time: Here the employees can work (eg between 10 am and 4 pm), at office and whilst the rest of the working day is Ã¢â¬Å"flexitimeÃ¢â¬ , in which staff can choose to work from anywhere subject to achieving total daily, weekly working hours and should complete the tasks assigned in time. Multiple time options followed by employees were: ? Begin work between 7.00 Ã¢â¬â 10.00 or 16.00 Ã¢â¬â 22.00 hours (flexitime can work from anywhere) ? Must be available at office between 10.00 Ã¢â¬â 14.00 (core working hours) for discussions and meetings on the work. Here there should be an understanding between the employee and their team leader about the arrangement of the time and work items and the employee should be clear about the expectations of his team leader. Their rationale is that as long as an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s productivity does not suffer, they have no issues about the number of hours he/she spends in office. They believe that more than observing work patterns, it is important to evaluate output. Similarly they appreciate the need of every employee to balance his/her work and personal life. They believe that it impacts the overall level of motivation, productivity and even influences the engagement levels of the organization. c) Individuals taken up as special cases would be considered working from home for a limited period Ã¢â¬â like employees who have small children etc.: Navaraga Corporation offers its employees the option to have flexibility in its standard working arrangements. These include family reasons, health reasons, and pursuit of academic/professional courses, which require part time working and are relevant to the company. The policy can be in the form of reduction in the standard working hours to a minimum of 4 hours a day or 20 hours a week. However, the option of allowing employees to avail flexi working hours will largely be determined by their needs of a particular role and at all times, the person must have connectivity. Research Papers on Flexi Timings for Employees in an IT OrganizationNever Been Kicked Out of a Place This NiceOpen Architechture a white paperThe Project Managment Office SystemBionic Assembly System: A New Concept of SelfAnalysis of Ebay Expanding into AsiaTwilight of the UAWResearch Process Part OneIncorporating Risk and Uncertainty Factor in CapitalMarketing of Lifeboy Soap A Unilever ProductInfluences of Socio-Economic Status of Married Males
Wednesday, February 19, 2020
Perfect learning environment and functioning of school tribunal - Essay Example At the same time it is the process by which an individual acquires and develops knowledge, understanding, skills, interests, and attitudes that are necessary to meet life situations. The effect of learning can be witnessed in the behaviour of an individual at various instances. Human has been able to progress just because of his capacity to make profit out of his and otherÃ¢â¬â¢s experiences. His customs, manners, etc are the product of his learning. Ã¢â¬Å"Learning is the cognitive process of acquiring skills and knowledgeÃ¢â¬ (Learning, n. d). It causes behavioural changes in onesÃ¢â¬â¢ life because of the constant interaction with the environment and the extra knowledge acquired about the environment. It is a continuous process which starts from the birth and ends only at the time of death of a person. It is a complex process which depends on many individual characteristics like socioeconomic background, attitude, philosophy of life, intelligence, physical and mental health, the environment in which learning occurs, genetic traits etc. Because of the dependability of various factors, it is difficult to have two persons with same learning abilities. School is a place where the teaching and learning process formally begins in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life. It is not necessary that all the schools provide same type of learning environment to the students. ... What makes the prefect learning environment? Ã¢â¬Å"Curriculum, instruction and assessment are the major means for effective learning. In the curriculum area, educators must place emphasis on intuition, feeling, sensing, and imagination, in addition to the traditional skills of analysis, reason, and sequential problem solvingÃ¢â¬ (Learning styles, 2008). It is impossible for a teacher to teach everything related to a specific topic. On the other hand if the teacher was able to develop interest among the students about that particular topic, the students will do the rest part of the learning process by themselves. In other words, developing positive feeling, imagination, intuition etc can make the learning process easy. Curriculum plays an important role in preparing proper learning environment. As mentioned earlier, learning is a complex task and hence it is necessary to control the parameters which affects the learning judiciously. For example, it is difficult to stimulate learnin g in a noisy environment. Learning is a process which requires the combined efforts of the teachers and the students. The transfer of learning takes place from the teacher to the students only if the teacher was able to deliver his/her lecture in an appropriate manner. In order to help the teacher to deliver the lessons in an organized manner, students required to observe strict silence in the class. In other words, discipline is the primary requirement for preparing a proper learning environment. If the teacher keeps on delivering the lectures and the students keep on doing something else, learning will never take place. The students should follow the teacher with utmost care in order to learn the topics properly.